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                          爱尔兰Media作业:受众群体的实证研究An empirical study of audience group

                          时间:2019-03-15 13:38来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:


                          1. Introduction介绍
                          Secondary creation, also known as re-creation, derivative works, produced works known as the second creation (or re-creation, derivative works). The second creation often refers to parody and re-creation in the same culture, but because it is not commonly used in the concept of copyright law. Its substantive coverage is difficult to determine. Some people think it also includes translation, adaptation and other existing crops Text, images, films, music, and this is similar to the derivative works on copyright law.
                          The second creation includes imitation, adaptation, reference and play, such as creative mode. The second creation is not to plagiarize someone else's work as their own work; the contrary, the second creation is clearly in a work / project / role as the key to adapt, imitate or be developed. It refers to and change means obviously.
                          However, the second creation in the law still may infringe the copyright of others, whether the relevant laws are reasonable, or the original author and copyright holders or copyright management agencies have different views which are still in dispute.
                          Based on the explosion of information in this modern age, which result in the disintegration of the past information, system. And which contributed to both the commercial works, or human, personal works, are full of secondary creation in this situation. Secondary creation of the media can be animation, drama, drama, Cosplay, movies, television programs, novels or many other different media. In this article, we will discuss “Internet Article 23” re-creation clip in YOUTUBE for the Hong Kong network (Awakening Dubbing, 2015). But also the impact of social networking site YOUTUBE.
                          2. Context: resistance to the cyber law in Hong Kong
                          Corresponding to the quickly changed network technology, Hong Kong Special District Government (HKSAR) submitted copyright amendment bill that put forward to stipulate “rights of communication”, so as to replace the old “broadcast and cable transmission rights” . Because it happened to be the time of HKSAR Chief Executive Election, after the spread by politicians and medias, the discussion was focused on “parody work” and risks it bears under the law, and further linked to issues such as freedom of speech, the political crackdown, and so on. Parodies come out from original work, which is not the concept under copyright law, but parody works, satire, and other types of work named by media and public. Hitler Rants is a generic term of many parodies work which used the footage of movie Downfall (2004) by net users; it is also used to wreak the dissatisfaction with some phenomena or characters. Since the Downfall was released, there were more than 15,000 parodies videos of Hitler Rants in Youtube. 
                          Other materials used as the original work to parody the Hitler Rants are documentary “Triumph of the Will” (1935), Valkyrie (2007) and other movies. Clips of lots of films are used as these kinds of materials, such as Dear Friend Hitler, Hitler: The Last Ten Days and Inglourious Basterds. Some other films or other footage, which have nothing to do with Downfall, or whose subject has little connection with the subject matter of Downfall, are also juxtaposed for fun. Besides, the characters, settings, as well as other films actors who have starred in, are also juxtaposed for humorous effect. Parody work makes use of special effects of films, or is along with computer-generated imagery, starts to become popular among fans, net users, and attracts attentions of ordinary public. There are different ways to make parody work, it can be superimposing the characters’ heads on footage of other films, or rotoscoping scenes of this film into different backgrounds of other films. 
                          According to incomplete statistics, since the Downfall has released, so far there are more than 15,000 various versions of this footage. The original plot setting is that: Hitler howled because being defeated in the battlefield. Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong is a parody work of footage of Downfall, which has expressed the net users’ dissatisfaction with the law against parody work. 
                          3. Video in YouTube: Hitler Rants Parodies
                          In the classic movie Downfall, the most famous footage parodied by net users is Hitler Rants, which was endowed with new connotation. Hitler Rants is also one of the most classic parody works on the Internet in China. In fact, many net users have even forgotten the original footage, and thought the parodies Hitler Rants was the original version, and the original version was a parody work. In this part, the article is going to analyze Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong, which is also Hitler Rants Parodies of Downfall, through which to critically evaluate the parody work.
                          3.1 Nature of the video
                          Downfall is well known among net users because of various inspirations for “Downfall parodies”. The famous footage in this film is that Hitler launches into a furious tirade when he finally realized the war was lost; and this footage becomes an inspiration of internet videos.  These parodies retained the original German audio, but added new subtitles and new background music. Therefore Hitler, as well as his subordinates, seems to be reacting to some other phenomena instead of the military defeats. These phenomena normally refer to some setbacks, including present-day politics, popular culture, sports, or daily life. Net users also parodied other scenes from various footage of this film in a same way. For example, the scenes that Hitler discusses a counterattack with his generals against advancing Soviet forces are notable. 
                          Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong, one of the parody works of Hitler Rants is a three minutes and 47 seconds’ video, which comes out from footage of Downfall (starting from about 38 minutes and 56 seconds of the film). In this segment, expressive force of Hitler is quite strong, either expressing opinions, or the effect of raising the response of audiences are quite good. The parody video added new Chinese subtitles, using popular vocabulary and cyber-words, expressing net users’ real attitudes and opinions of Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong.
                          Essentially speaking, Parodies are the subculture of network transmission, which embodies a rebellious spirits of the society. Parodies subvert classic, deconstruct traditions, show off individuality, and mocks the society, and so on.  Parody work normally has strong grassroots nature and color of civilians. To summarize, parody is a kind of disassembling, which deconstructs the former significance, provides a new perspective, and makes people re-examine the event itself. 
                          3.2 Audience group of the video
                          Why can parodies become a fashion? In today’s society the popularity of parodies is closely related to the various social audience psychologies. For these reasons, parody phenomena of films and televisions usher emergence and development. In contemporary society, public’s desires and needs to entertainment are the social psychological reasons for the popularity of parodies work. A lot of empirical researches are launched to study the impact of parodies on Youtube. Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong is a parody work of footage of Downfall, also a kind of way to present people’s true feelings and attitudes to the copyright amendment bill. 
                          To investigate audience group and audience psychologies of Hitler Rants Parodies of the Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong, this essay adopts a research method of individual interview, collecting research information and interviewing the respondents individually. The interviewees are five schoolmates, who can fully understand the interview is anonymous and the purpose is for academic use. Based on current study and literature reviews, this study have designed an outline which includes three questions. The aims of individual interviews are to find out audience group’s attitude and true feelings about Hitler Rants Parodies of the Internet Article 23 of Hong Kong. Key points of these interviews can be summarized in the following.

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