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                          英国Term Paper本科课程作业范文-3篇

                          时间:2019-02-27 15:17来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
                          分析南部门白人至上主义运动的兴起和影响。解释他们崛起的原因,?#33539;?#25152;涉及的社会阶层,并描述他们对南方社会和政治的影响。白人至上主义者是否完成了他们的目标?确保您提供证据来支
                          分析南部门白人至上主义运动的兴起和影响。解释他们崛起的原因,?#33539;?#25152;涉及的社会阶层,并描述他们对南方社会和政治的影响。白人至上主义者是否完成了他们的目标?确保您提供证据来支持您的论文。
                          南方白人至上主义运动兴起的原因包括以下几个方面。首先,南方的农民需要很多黑人奴隶为他们工作,所?#36816;?#20204;支持白人至上主义运动,以确保在美国南部实施奴隶制(斯科特,一滴血:美国的种族错误,174  - 184)。其次,为了保持社会里白人统治地位,盎格鲁 - 撒克逊白人提议白人至上主义者帮助其他白人?#20998;?#31227;民融入当地社区,尽快领导和管理当地社区(Roediger,Working To Whiteness:How How美国移民成为白人,105-115)。最后,“白人自由主义者”希望赋予黑人自由,但他们不想给予他们平等的政治权利,为了解决这场冲突,提出了白人至上主义运动,认为白人是智慧,勤劳代表和黑人没有这样的?#20998;剩?#25152;?#36816;?#20204;不能拥有政治权利(Scott,One Drop of Blood:The American Misadventure of Race,174 -184)。
                          参与白人至上主义运动的社会阶层包括:农民,他们希望保留奴隶制(Scott,One Drop of Blood:The American Misadventure of Race,174 -184);白人工人阶级,他们希望有更多的工作机会和福利;普通的贫穷白人,他们希望通过白人至上主义运动维持自己的地位,自豪感和自由度;外国白人移民的后裔,因为他们不希望他们的工作被黑人抢走(弗莱,不同肤色的白人:?#20998;?#31227;民和种族炼金术,11-21。)。* Analyze the rise and impact of white supremacist movements in the South. Explain the causes for their rise, identify the segments of society involved, and describe the impact they had on southern society and politics. Did white supremacists accomplish what they set out to do? Make sure that you provide evidence to support your thesis.
                          The causes of the rise of white supremacist movements in the South included the following aspects. Firstly, farmers in the South needed a lot of black slaves to work for them, so they supported white supremacist movements, to ensure the implementation of slavery in the American South (Scott, One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race, 174 -184). Secondly, in order to maintain white dominance of the society, Anglo-Saxon whites proposed white supremacist to help other white European immigrants to integrate into the local communities to lead and manage the local communities as soon as possible (Roediger, Working Toward Whiteness: How American Immigrants Became White, 105-115). Finally, the "white liberals" wanted to endow blacks with freedom for, but they did not want to give them equal political rights, in order to resolve this conflict, white supremacist movements have been proposed, considering that whites are wisdom, hard-working representatives, and blacks did not have such quality, so they could not have political rights (Scott, One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race, 174 -184).
                          The segments of society involved in the white supremacist movements included: farmers, they would wish to preserve slavery(Scott, One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race, 174 -184); white working class, they wanted to have more job opportunities and welfare; ordinary poor whites, they hoped to maintain their status, pride, and a large measure of freedom through white supremacist movements; descendants of foreign whites immigrants, as they did not want their work to be snatched by blacks (Frye, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, 11-21.).
                          The impact of white supremacist movements in the South on southern society and politics were represented in the following aspects. They caused continuous ethnic conflicts between whites and blacks in southern society, even racial attacks have occurred. The right of most of southern blacks’ to participate in politics was deprived, before the implementation of the Voting Rights Act in 1965, the voting rate of blacks was about 20 percent. A large number of blacks went to the cities in the north because their political, economic rights and their right-to-work were not properly guaranteed. In the 1940s, a million of blacks left the South, in the 1950s, 1.5 million blacks migrated (Scott, One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race, 174 -184).
                          Now it seems that white supremacist movements did not fully achieve the intended purpose. First, the political status of blacks has been significantly improved, the voting rate has been improved greatly, more and more black people have played an active role in the local governments and the parliament. Second, the discrimination of local laws towards blacks has been significantly reduced, in most cases, blacks and whites have the same job opportunities and rights. Finally, the talent of blacks especially in sports, music and other aspects has been increasingly recognized by the society, so that blacks also play an important role in the local society.
                          References
                          Frye, J. M. (1998). Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 11-21.
                          Roediger, D. (2005). Working Toward Whiteness: How American Immigrants Became White. New York, Basic Books,) 105-115.
                          Scott, M. (2000). One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 174 -184.
                           
                          *Discuss the growth and transformation of the cattle industry from the 1860s through the 1890s. What did Indian removal have to do with the expansion of the industry? How did the advancing railroad contribute to the changes? Make sure that you provide evidence to support your thesis.
                          After the American Civil War, the cattle industry rose up in the Midwest prairie. It was no accident that the cattle industry developed rapidly. First of all, the American West was less destroyed by the civil war (William, An Album of the American Cowboy, 46-49). Then, a large number of Americans entered the cities at that time, and then increasing the demand for beef. Finally, it was benefited from the unique natural conditions. In the American West, there is not only a pleasant climate, but also good quality Texas Hereford cattle. There has been the magical plump grass, which is known as the "golden on the ground, even in winter, this grass remains natural sweetness and nutrition. Various favorable conditions were prepared, the cattle industry was developed at an alarming rate. In the late 1800s, there were 50 million head of cattle in Texas and Texas was the state with the largest number of cattle in US. Finally, during this period, there have been many large ranches, there was a large demand for cowboys, a lot of people started to be involved in the cattle industry, there was a substantial increase in the number of cowboys, which also played a catalytic role for the development of the cattle industry (William, An Album of the American Cowboy, 46-49).
                          At the time when the cattle industry developed rapidly, the local Indians were defeated by the US Army and they were restricted to live in reservation. Due to the rapid development of the cattle industry, a lot of pasture was grazed, the natural environment had been destroyed, the massacre of a large number of bison made Indians in reservation difficult to eat beef. In addition, natural conditions of the reserved areas were usually poor, the Indians were unable to support themselves through farming, to 1870, the US Army brought 60000-70000 cattle per year to give the Indians and the military for consumption (Travers, The Great Chihuahua Cattle Drive of 1868, 85-105.).
                          The eastern beef prices at the time in United States were much higher than the prices in the west and in the south, the huge economic benefits attracted a lot of people to deal with cattle trade, but there was a big question: how to quickly transport cattle from the west to the eastern cities. The Trans-Continental Railroad amended in 1968 solved this problem. While the rail transport also helped the cattle industry to actively explore other markets, such as by The Goodnight-Loving Trail to send cattle to New Mexico Indian reservation in southwest in the United States (Skaggs, The Cattle-trailing Industry: Between Supply and Demand, 1866-1890, 10-11). With the construction of the railway, the demand for cowboys in the cattle industry decreased, the status of cowboys was gradually reduced. They had to switch to do other work, there was a significant decline in the number of cowboys in the cattle industry (William, An Album of the American Cowboy, 46-49).
                          References
                          Skaggs, J. M. (1973). The Cattle-trailing Industry: Between Supply and Demand,1866-1890. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 10-11.
                          Travers, D. N. (2001). The Great Chihuahua Cattle Drive of 1868. Journal of Big Bend Studies 13, 85-105.
                          William, M. J. (1971). An Album of the American Cowboy. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 46-49.
                           
                          * Explain the reasons given by the United States government for keeping territories such as the Philippines. Identify individuals and groups within the U.S. who opposed imperialistic moves, and how the events in the Philippines furthered their cause. Make sure that you provide evidence to support your thesis.
                          Reasons given by the United States government for keeping territories such as the Philippines included, firstly, Spanish army's brutal repression of the local people angered American people and threatened the economic interests of American capitalists in Philippines. Secondly, the US government’s keeping territories helped to maintain US influence in the local military and economy, giving the United States opportunities and reasons to participation in international affairs decision-making. Finally, through keeping territories, the US government protected the economic interests of the American capitalists in Philippines to help the United States to open up new markets, investment markets and sources of raw materials (LaFeber, The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations, vol. II, 61.). Thirdly, the US government was through keeping territories to provide a maritime supply base for expanding trade with and other major countries such as China. Finally, some US politicians believed that the Philippines were not ready for independence and autonomy, so he decided to occupy the Philippines, and then help the people there by the impact of education, culture, economy for the future preparation for self-government of the Philippines (Silbey, A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War, 107).


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