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                          Master essay格式范文-Critique of 'Integrative motivation in a gl

                          时间:2019-02-11 10:39来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
                          The proposal of Cultural participation in Europe- Trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore 导读:这是一篇Master essay格式范文,主要讨论了研究文化旅游者行为在贪婪消费和
                          The proposal of Cultural participation in Europe- Trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore
                          导读:这是一篇Master essay格式范文,主要讨论了研究文化旅游者行为在贪婪消费和文化杂食两个方面的发展趋势。
                          1.0 Introduction 引言
                          人们在不同的文化环境中旅行,如国际旅行者、移民和其他旅游群体。他们经历了不同数量?#25343;?#22833;,消费者的生活方式和符号系统,虽然理解这些差异并不简单。
                          在不同的文化空间中,社会生活和市场监管的某些方面似乎差异很大,而另一些方面则令人放心,这是公认的国际游客。不同的饮食习惯、着装规范、语言和社会期望坐在一起,同?#20445;?#19982;普通?#25918;疲?#31561;于市场对交易的约定(如付款方式)和一般?#25945;?#21644;娱乐产品。此外,在任何特定的文化环境中,一些空间差异都很低(Burli、Kotturshettar和Dalmia,2012年)。国际机场?#20309;鎦行?#26159;最受欢迎的旅?#25991;?#30340;地之一,也是中央商务区的首都,在大多数发达国家代表着最国际化、甚至是世界文化消费环境。然而,在这些领域和市场空间,文化差异往往变得更?#29992;?#26174;。再者,当代消费社会在保持国际、民族和地区文化特色的同?#20445;?#20854;消费者。很少有人跨越文化边界,把同质的空间和文化变成另一种文化同质。游客遇到文化环境,选择或倾向于进入一个新的跨文化空间的文化也决定了他们的体验(Lopes,2010年)。此外,对新文化背景价值观和社会?#38469;?#30340;回应。在全球化的世界里,商品、资本和发达国?#19994;?#20449;息越来越能够在文化空间之间流动,了解跨文化(或“跨文化”)的消费体验越来越必要。
                          People travel between different culture environment, such as the international travelers, immigration and other tourist groups. They are experiencing a different number of disorientation, the consumer's life style and symbol systems, although understanding these differences which are not simple.
                          Some aspects of social life and the market regulation seems to vary widely between different cultural spaces, while others are reassuring, which is a recognized international tourists. Different eating habits, dress code, language and social expectations sit together, at the same time, with the ordinary brand, is equal to the market to trade agreement (such as payment method) and general media and entertainment products. In addition, some space differentiations are low in any specific cultural environment(Burli, Kotturshettar, &Dalmia, 2012). International airport shopping centers, and one of the most popular tourist destinations and the capital city of central business district, are in most developed countries represent the most international, even the world, and the culture consumption settings. However in these areas and market space cultural differences tend to become more obvious. Furthermore, the contemporary consumer society while maintaining international, national and regional cultural characteristics, their consumers. Few people cross cultural boundaries, leaving a homogeneous space and culture into another cultural homogeneity. Visitors encounter cultural environment, select or tend to enter into a new culture of cross cultural space also determine their experience (Lopes, 2010). In addition, the response to the new culture background values and social constraints. In a globalized world where information on goods, capital and the developed countries are more able to move between the cultural space, understand cross-cultural (or "crossing - culture") consumption experience more and more necessary. 
                          Therefore, this article is intended to research the trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore.
                          2.0 Literature review
                          Grotte has stated (2013) that long tradition from social science research can be informedcrossing - culture experience, the study is potential to check one way to adapt to the new cultural environment often referred to as "cultural adaptation" process. Although there are many reasons and motives "cross-cultural", such as travel, work, education, happiness and permanent residence, the vast majority of research only deals with such environment, the immigrants. Most studies also focus on the individual (usually a "minority group") in Europe. Between a large number of people of different cultural environment, and North America immigration research is still in exploring the negotiability of other border crossings
                          Cultural adaptation reaction is "bi - culturalism", tourists at home and the host's cultural values into their personal and social identity(Hughes & Allen, 2009). Other terms have been developed, including "cultural negotiation", "cultural identity" and "cultural marginalization", trying to represent the existing and New Deal with the complex mix of cultural values. The challenges of culture (s) are as a discrete, stable or static and beyond the understanding of a one-way acculturation. They show visitors management comfort and contradiction of national culture and new culture, may be in a unique way to integrate the two create a "new" (sub) culture.
                          Acculturation think immigration of consumer behavior including more than a simple assimilation of the establishment of consumption patterns showed that consumer’s acculturation describes a compromise the process of learning and skills and behavior of selective display culture definition(Eugenio-Martin&Campos-Soria, 2011). Proper ability and master certain types of cultural knowledge are identified as the key in different consumption patterns and consumption behavior of tourists. A problem is the premise of this concept, it denied "immigrants" consumption and consumer behavior may constitute a kind of important cultural study, especially the consumers feel particularly competent in the use of the material wealth and the symbolism of the reading material culture.
                          3.0 Hypotheses
                          This article is dedicated to research the trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer and cultural omnivore, as the consequence, the following two hypotheses could summarize: 
                          H1: Culture visitor behaviors could be positive through voracious consumers
                          H2: Culture visitor behaviors could be positive through cultural omnivore
                          4.0 Data and method
                          In the form of the research method, the survey could be conducted across the students and customers from the university who has different cultural backgrounds. Randomly sample size could be 100 international students and also 100 customers for the Festivals. In addition, in the survey, 10 questions could be designed for the research purpose. 
                          In the data analysis, the SPSS could be applied for the result of the survey. In the first stage, finding Cronbach’s alpha checked reliability of the data, which measures internal consistency or average correlation of items in a survey instrument to gauge its reliability. In second stage bi-variate correlation analysis was used to assess the strength of relationship between dependent and independent variables. In third stage multiple regression analysis was applied to check the contribution individual constructs on performance measures. Coefficient of determination (R-square) was used to check the model adequacy. Finally Z-test was used to test the significance of two groups. 
                          5.0 Research paper timeframe
                          Week 1: design the questionnaires and allocated the questionnaires to each international student and customers in the purposed locations; 
                          Week 2&3: Collection of the data and analysis of the data; 
                          Week 4: Prepared to write the research paper; 
                          Week 5: Proof reading and correction
                          6.0 Limitation for the research
                          Time is limited for the research paper, so that sample size is limited for the research purpose. Also, the research paper is based on the questionnaires result analysis from SPSS, the result could be the opinion by the surveyors. 
                          Reference lists
                          Burli, S. B., Kotturshettar, B. B., &Dalmia, R. V. (2012). Multiple Performance Measures: Six TQM Practices. SCMS Journal Of Indian Management, 9(1), 69-79.
                          Eugenio-Martin, J. L., & Campos-Soria, J. A. (2011). Income and the substitution pattern between domestic and international tourism demand. Applied Economics, 43(20), 2519-2531. doi:10.1080/00036840903299698
                          Grotte, J. (2013). Budget Tourism - Transition Economy. International Journal Of Business Insights & Transformation, 6(2), 104-109.
                          Hughes, H. L., & Allen, D. (2009). Central and Eastern Europe and EU accession 2004: Views of the impact on tourism. Tourism & Hospitality Research, 9(3), 185-198. doi:10.1057/thr.2009.9
                          Lopes, C. A. (2010). Consumer morality in times of economic hardship: evidence from the European Social Survey. International Journal Of Consumer Studies, 34(2), 112-120. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2009.00845.x


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