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                          加拿大国际政治作业范文:We want the world and we want it now!Is this a u

                          时间:2019-03-20 15:35来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
                          导读:这是一篇解释中国的能源困境,并认为中国的走出去政策并非主宰世界,而只是确保其能源安全的加拿大作业。中国的走出去政策似乎雄心勃勃,但对于一个大型经济实体来说,这只是一
                          导读:这是一篇解释中国的能源困境,并认为中国的“走出去政策”并非主宰世界,而只是确保其能源安全的加拿大作业。中国的“走出去”政策似乎雄心勃勃,但对于一个大型经济实体来说,这只是一个不可避免的选择。欧盟在东欧、美国和日本等地建设管道,也在非洲和南美投资,中东能源引发的冲突由来已久。
                          Introduction介绍
                          中国经济的快速增长引起了国家相关方面的高度关注,包括能源政策(Rosen&Houser,2007;Cherni&Kentish,2007)。中国社会科学院世界经济政治研究所(IWEP)的研究表明,与世界平均值相比,中国人均可利用能源消?#21335;?#23545;有限。而供需矛盾十分尖锐。本文将对中国能源困境进行解释,认为中国的“走出去”政策是为了确保能源安全而不是主宰世界,本文首先将对其特征进行简要论述。接下来,将分别从以下五个方面对中国的能源困境、中国对非洲的投资、围绕中国的争端、中国当前的能源政策、中国威胁论的影响等进行详细阐述。
                          The rapid growth of China’s economy has drawn great attention to the related aspects of the country, including the energy policy (Rosen & Houser, 2007; Cherni& Kentish, 2007. Dhakal, 2007; Feiet. al., 2011). As the research of Institute of World Economics and Politics Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (IWEP) indicated, the available energy consumption per capita of China is relatively limited, comparing to the average value worldwide. The contradiction between supply and demand is quite acute (IWEP,2015). This essay will explain China’s energy dilemma and argue that China’s “going out policy” is put forward to ensure its energy security rather than dominate the world.The characterisation will firstly be briefly discussed. Subsequently, more details will be described in the following five parts about the China’s energy dilemma, China’s investment in Africa, disputes around China, China’s current energy policy, the influence of the China threat theory, respectively.
                          Argument论证
                          这一声明可能不是中国能源政策的一个有用特征。“我们要世界,我们现在就要世界。”?#32622;?#24847;?#38469;?#23427;表明中国正试图采取从国内储备到国际资源的主导方式,并利用一切可能实现其宏伟目标的优势。这在一定程度上可能是对中国形势的歪曲。中国是一个发展中国家,人口14亿,多年来经济增长速度超过8%(国家统计局中国统计年鉴,2006年;2011年),能源需求巨大,但国内储量相对有限。为了节约能源,必须进口大量的石油、天然气和其他原材料。为确保能源安全,东海和南海新的海洋保护区已经进行了大量的勘探工作。同?#20445;?#20013;国也因滥用肮脏权力而遭受污染。为了解决这一问题,中国政府将“防止环境污染”纳入“十二五”规划,并投入大量?#24335;?#30740;究和开发可再生能源。因此,声明夸大了中国能源政策的积极性,而没有考虑到中国的基本现实,因此,这可能不是中国能源政策的一个有用的特征。The statement may not be a useful characterisation for China’s energy policy.“We want the world and we want it now.”Literally, it indicates that China is trying to pursue a dominating approach from domestic reserves to international resources and take advantages of everything available to reach its ambitious goals. It could be a misrepresentation of China’s situation to some extend. As a developing country with 1.4 billion populations and fast-speed economy growth over 8% for years (NationalBureauofStatisticsofChinaChina Statistical Yearbook, 2006; 2011), China has a huge demand of energy, but the domestic reserves are relatively limited. For the sake of energy consumption, it has to import a great amount of oil, gas and other raw materials. To ensure its energy security,tremendous efforts have been made to explore the new reserves in East and South China Sea. At the same time, China also suffered in the pollutions caused by the overuse of dirty powers. To deal with that, China’s government put “against environment pollution” into the 12th Five-year Plan and spent a lot of money to research and develop the renewable energies. Therefore, the statement exaggerates the aggressiveness of China’s energy policy without considering about the fundamental realities of the country.Conclusively, this may not be a useful characterisation of China’s energy policy.
                          Part 1: China’s energy dilemma  (400 words)
                          China has a huge demand of energy because of the population and economic development. The development of China’s energy policy is mainly in a race with its rapid economy growth. Coal is the most widely used fossil fuel in China due to its abundant domestic reserves (Cohen, 2014), but it also causes severe environmental damage (Zhang, He &Huo, 2012). Cleaner energy is severely neededwhile the techniques for new energy, such as wind, solar energy and some renewable biological fuels, are not mature enough for large-area alternating applications. Comparing to these, other traditional fossil fuels, including petroleum and natural gas, are more suitable and promising. 
                          To replace the overused coal and maintain stable economy growth concurrently,China’s government invest for several projects abroad. The Central Asia-Chinagas pipeline is one of the most successful cases. Up to now, 3 main lines have been completed(Business Recorder, 2014), which contribute enormouslyin optimizing the overall energy consumption structure of China (China Stakes, 2008).Additionally, China’s government also fund infrastructure construction in Africa to obtain the exploration right or exchange for raw materials directly, especially in some countries with rich natural resources, including Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria andZambia(Bristow, 2007; Xinhua, 2009; Polgreen, 2009; Xu, 2010). To some extend, these measures are efficient and effective. However, leaning on importing may threat the country’s energy security in long term, with numerous uncertain factors, both politically and economically. 
                          To avoid highly dependence on energy imports, tremendous efforts were also made on research and development to the exploration and drilling techniques inside the country. Simultaneously, exploration for newdeep-water oil and gas fields in the East and South China Seas were also started (Yahoo News, 2015), but this which caused some conflict in this area, which set China to another dilemma, to maintain a peaceful environment for economy growth or to protest for the proper rights and interests in the long term.
                          Conclusively, there are 3 problems related to China’s energy dilemma. Firstly, the acute contradiction between supply and demand should be gapped. Secondly, to what extend can China rely on importing needs to be calculated carefully. Thirdly, territorial dispute set another dilemma to China, to develop or stop to fight.
                          Part2: China’s investments in Africa----Neo-colonialism or FDI
                          China’s investments in Africa started decades ago and have been continuing through present days. Most of the financial investment and workforce were focused on the areas with rich natural resources. These facilities do help China secure its energy contradiction. Simultaneously, they improve the situations in Africa significantly. By the end of 2013, all the contracts signed by Chinese companies with African countries have summed up to approximate 400 billion US dollars. Cumulatively, more than 2200 kilometres railways and over 3500 kilometres driveways have been constructed.(Liu, 2014)Moreover, there are plentiful constructions, which were “made by China”, improving the living standard of African people impressively, for instance, the power plant in Garner, hospitals in Congo, the hydropower station in Zambia and so on.
                          Some western developed countries as well as African critics treat China’s investments in Africa as an approach of neo-colonialism,especially from the year of 2009, when China surpassed the United State as the largest trading partner with African countries(Times,2010) . To clarify the argument, the definitions of Neo-colonialism and FDI should firstly be introduced. As Sartre defined in Colonialism and Neo-colonialism, “neo-colonialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country, in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control”. (Sartre &Brewe, 2001) On the other hand, FDI is the abbreviation for Foreign Direct Investment, which is typical investment behaviours, through which the investors of a country invest abroad for production or management to grasp some certain rights of operational control. 
                          Combining with the examples listed above, it is obvious that China’s investment in Africa is common commercial behaviour like other multinational companies but not neo-colonialism. As the development of economic globalization, countries rely on each other more than before. Less-developed countries or even some developing countries commonly export their raw materials to get more foreign direct investmentsfor further development. The level of economic development in some African countries limits their industrial structures. They could rely on nothing but importing the non-renewable resources, whoever the trading partners are. Foreign exchange reserve is a kind of free trade that should not be blamed.
                          Country’s economic and technology aids always served to its political and economic purpose that is not striking news any more. US, Japan and EU has done it for decades of years. China’s free aids in Africa and South America should not be blamed and accused as the conspiracy. Furthermore, as a researcher of South African Institute of International Affairs claimed, China’s investment for infrastructure constructions were different from those of some other countries in several aspects. One of the most important differences was that all the loans were applied to promote the financing capacity of the African countries without any political conditions (Yuan, 2014). 


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