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                          酒店管理学Literature Review范文-(customer satisfaction)

                          时间:2019-03-13 12:02来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
                          Customer Satisfaction消费者满意度 Table of Contents 1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 3 2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction 4 3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model 5 3.1 Expectation and perception gap model 5 3.2 Equity th
                          Customer Satisfaction消费者满意度
                           
                          Table of Contents
                          1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 3
                          2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction 4
                          3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model 5
                          3.1 Expectation and perception gap model 5
                          3.2 Equity theory model 5
                          3.3 Attribution theory 5
                          3.4 Emotion theory 6
                          4.0 Factors affecting customer satisfaction and hotel countermeasures 6
                          5.0 Empirical study on customer satisfaction in hospitality industry 7
                          6.0 Critical analysis 9
                          7.0 Conclusion 9
                          References 11
                          目录
                          1.0客户满意度的定义3
                          2.0客户满意度的重要性4
                          3.0顾客满意度测量理论模型5
                          3.1期望和感知差距模型5
                          3.2公平理论模型5
                          3.3归因理论5
                          3.4情绪理论6
                          4.0影响顾客满意度和酒店对策的因素6
                          5.0酒店业客户满意度的实证研究7
                          6.0批判性分析9
                          7.0结论9
                          参考文献11
                           
                          1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 1.0客户满意度的定义
                          本研究回顾了客户满意度的定义和重要性,理论模型,实证研究结果,指出了当前客户满意度研究?#20889;?#22312;的局限性,为今后的研究提出了方向。
                          This study reviews definition and importance, theoretical models, empirical research results related to customer satisfaction to note the limitations existing in current researches on customer satisfaction, thus bringing forward directions for future researches.
                          Assaf和Magnini观察到,学者们从不同角度提出了对客户满意度的各种理解和认识。在学术界,有两种观点来定义顾客满意度(2012,pp.625)。 Homme和Raymond总结说,一种观点认为客户满意度是顾客对购买行为的后期感受,这是消费体验产生的结果(2013年,第120页)。正如Howard和Sheth所定义的那样,客户满意度是客户的一种认知状态,?#27492;?#20204;是否获得了足够的报酬(1969年,第318页)。 Omar,Ariffin和Ahmad认为,当根据消费体验形成的消费者期望与消费体验一致?#20445;?#39038;客满意度就会出现一种情绪状态(2016,pp.390)。另一种观点认为,顾客满意度是消费过程中消费行为的整个过程或之后的评价。正如Keith所说,客户满意度是一个由经验和评估引起的过程(1977,pp.21)。 Westbrook和Reilly进一步表明客户满意度?#21069;?#38543;或购买过程中产生的情绪?#20174;Γ?#23427;是通过产品展示,整体购物环境,产品和服务质量因素对消费者心理的影响而产生的(1983,pp.260 )。 Deng,Yeh和Sung指出,考虑到客户满意度的内涵,评估过程是核心部分,它们是从过程的角度来定义客户满意度(2013,pp.138)。Assaf and Magnini observed that scholars are from different angles to bring forward a variety of understanding and awareness about customer satisfaction. In academia, there are two types of point of view defining customer satisfaction (2012, pp. 625). Homme and Raymond summarized that one view is that customer satisfaction is customers’ post-feeling towards purchase behavior afterwards, which is a result generated from consumption experience (2013, pp. 120). As Howard and Sheth defined that customer satisfaction is customers’ a kind of cognitive state for whether they obtain a sufficient compensation for what they pay (1969, pp. 318). Omar, Ariffin, and Ahmad argued that customer satisfaction is an emotional state emerged when consumer expectations formed according to consumption experiences are consistent with consumption experience (2016, pp. 390). The other view is that customer satisfaction is the evaluation throughout or after the process of consumption towards consumer behavior. As Keith posited, customer satisfaction is a process arising from experience and assessment (1977, pp.21). Westbrook and Reilly further showed the views that customer satisfaction is an emotional reaction accompanied by or produced in purchase process, it is produced by affecting by product display, overall shopping environment, product and service quality factors on consumers’ psychology (1983, pp. 260). Deng, Yeh and Sung indicated that considering connotation of customer satisfaction, evaluation process is the core part, they are from the perspective of process to define customer satisfaction (2013, pp. 138).
                          Jiang and Zhang proposed that the first point refers to post-evaluation of customers towards specific purchase behavior, the second view refers to a thorough evaluation of customers carrying out based on the overall purchase and consumption experience (2016, pp. 86). Since the latter takes into account all purchase and consumption experience of customers in consumption process, so it is more basic, more effective definition (Homme & Raymond, 2013, pp. 125). In this study, it tends to define customer satisfaction from consumption process. Rhee and Yang concluded that customer satisfaction is comparison of consumers’ expectations of a process of consumption and their actual consumption experience, so as to determine whether it reaches what they expect (2015, pp.585).
                          2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction
                          Jiang and Zhang upheld that profit is proportional to customer satisfaction of a hotel, the higher customer satisfaction there is, the higher customer loyalty there will be, and the time for customers’ consuming in a hotel will be increased, sum of customers’ single consumption in the hotel is likely to be increased, while there is high customer satisfaction to form public praise propagation, attracting a large number of other customers to consume in the hotel (2016, pp.87). And low customer satisfaction will not only lead to loss of profits brought by a customer, but also cause loss of more profit brought by other clients probably because of negative public praise propagation (Omar, Ariffin & Ahmad, 2016, pp. 390). 
                          Khan, Garg and Rahman commented that customer satisfaction is closely related to a hotel's reputation and image (2015, pp. 271), if products or services provided by a hotel can satisfy customers, the hotel's reputation and image will be greatly enhanced, thus helping the formation of positive word of mouth effect among consumers to improve the reputation of the hotel (Chen, Yang, Li & Liu, 2015, pp. 137).
                          As Kralj and Solnetdescribed mentioned that improved customer satisfaction will help to maintain good relationships established between a hotel and customers to improve customer loyalty, especially in the situation when there is serious competition in hotel industry currently, by providing high quality personalized services and products to meet consumers’ personalized demand will improve customer satisfaction, which has a special significance for the development of a hotel (2010, pp. 717). At the same time, considering from a marketing point of view, costs for developing a new customer are six times more than costs for keeping an old customer, thus increasing customer satisfaction will help to retain existing customers and thus save large sums of corporate marketing costs and operating costs for a hotel (Ali, Hussain & Ragavan, 2014, pp. 278).
                          3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model
                          3.1 Expectation and perception gap model
                          Lahap et al. concluded, the model describes that before purchase, customers will have expectation for various interests and utility provided by products that they will purchase later (2016, pp.153); after purchase, they will compare the using experience obtained in consuming the products with their expectation formed in advance: when the actual perception and expectation are the same, customers will have a moderate satisfaction; when actual perception exceeds expectation, it will lead to customers’ satisfaction; and when the actual perception can not reach the desired result, it will make customers unsatisfactory (Homme & Raymond, 2013, pp. 123).
                          3.2 Equity theory model
                          Omar, Ariffin and Ahmad claimed, whether customers are satisfied with products not only depends on the comparison between expected and perceived quality, but also on whether customers think whether the transaction is fair and reasonable (2016, pp.390). When customers feel that the ratio of utility they get and what they invest is the same as the ratio of product provider, they will feel fair and satisfied. The higher degree of equity there is, the higher customer satisfaction there will be; on the contrary, the degree of equity will be lower, and customers are more dissatisfied (Lee & Heo, 2009, pp. 636).
                          3.3 Attribution theory
                          Ren et al. observed that if customer perception towards a product or service is below their expectation, customers are always trying to determine the cause (2016, pp.19). The reason determined has a significant impact on their satisfaction. If customers attribute to a product or service itself, then their satisfaction will be greatly reduced, if customers attributed to accidental factors or customers themselves, the possibilities of their dissatisfaction will be greatly reduced (Su, 2004, pp.403).


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