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                          report格式范文:“乙醇汽車排放”一文的文獻分析報告

                          時間:2019-02-28 14:46來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
                          Literature Analysis Report for the Article Ethanol Vehicle Emissions 乙醇汽車排放一文的文獻分析報告 ----關于E85能否根據其在環境問題上的明顯優勢替代傳統燃料的問題從狹義上講,E85指的是85%乙醇和15%常

                          Literature Analysis Report for the Article “Ethanol Vehicle Emissions ”“乙醇汽車排放”一文的文獻分析報告

                          ----關于“E85能否根據其在環境問題上的明顯優勢替代傳統燃料”的問題“從狹義上講,E85指的是85%乙醇和15%常規石油的汽油混合物。從廣義上講,它包括含有51%-83%乙醇的高級乙醇 - 汽油混合物,根據美國能源部的定義(AFDC,2014)。

                          ----in respect to the question “Could E85 alternate the conventional fuels according to its obvious benefits on environmental issues”In a narrow sense, E85 refers to a petrol blend of 85% ethanol and 15% conventional petroleum. In broad terms, itincludes high-level ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51%-83% ethanol, according to the definition of the U.S.Department of Energy (AFDC, 2014).

                          1. Bias偏見

                          (這篇文章是否會影響您對未來E85作為替代燃料的可能性的看法,參考該文章進行解釋。)本文以中立的方式撰寫,重點是車輛排放。主題在引言部分顯示“今天的排放標準要求乙醇/汽油能靈活燃料汽車(FFVs),以滿足與傳統汽車相同的排放標準,無論使用何種燃料”。在身體部分的分析確實顯示根據“生命周期排放”和“蒸發和尾氣排放”方面的性能比較,與傳統石油燃料相比,乙醇燃料(如E85)的優勢。然而,該聲明保持科學和中立,廣泛的數據研究和乙醇燃料的利弊描述。例如,“許多研究比較了E85和汽油的排放量。 E85減少了二氧化碳的排放,以及苯等許多有害有害物質的排放。但是,它會增加乙醛的排放量。“

                          (Is the article written in a way to influence your opinion on the possibility of E85 as a alternative fuel in the future,explain with reference to the article. )The article is written in a neutral way with the focus on vehicle emissions. The theme is revealed in the introduction partwith the sentence “Today's emissions standards require ethanol/gasoline-capable flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) to meetthe same emissions standards as conventional vehicles, regardless of the fuel used”.The analysis in the body part does show the advantages of ethanol fuels, such as E85, comparing to the conventionalpetroleum fuels, according to the performance comparisons in the aspects of “Life Cycle Emissions” and “Evaporativeand Tailpipe Emissions”. However, the statement keeps scientific and neutral with broad data research and descriptionsof both pros and cons for the ethanol fuels. For example, “Numerous studies have compared the emissions of E85 andgasoline. E85 decreases the emissions of CO2, as well as the emissions of many harmful toxics, such as benzene.However, it increases acetaldehyde emissions.”

                          2. Credibility

                          (Is the publisher a trust worthy source of information on the related issues, explain?)The article is published on the website of the U.S. Department of Energy, to be specific, the Alternative Fuels DataCenter (AFDC) of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office. The AFDC is a resource of the U. S.Department of Energy’s Clean Cities program. The information resource is reliable for its public welfare nature withoutmotivation for biased commercial advertisement.In addition, all the figures and data employed in the article are quoted from reliable scientific works based on broadresearch. For example, the graph is derived from the study of Argonne National Laboratory with trackable links.

                          3. Accuracy

                          (Explain what you would need to do to check if the information in the article is accurate.)All the “facts” beyond common sense level are illustrated with supporting information in the article.In the “Life Cycle Emissions” part, the comparison is shown clearly with the figure. To know more about the calculationand investigation details we can refer to the paper (Wang, Wu & Huo, 2007).In the “Evaporative and Tailpipe Emissions” part, there is also a scientific report to support the opinion (CoordinatingResearch Council, 2006). For the fact mentioned above, “low levels of ethanol can cause gasoline to evaporate moreeasily, low-level ethanol blends can increase evaporative emissions in vehicles”, no explanations are given, but theconclusion is reasonable with the consideration of the physical chemistry property of ethanol, where the blending systemmay have the lowest constant boiling point or a boiling point between the two pure solvents.

                          4. Suitability

                          (Does this article explain whether E85 is possible to alternate the conventional fuels in the future according to its obviousbenefits on environmental issues?Is there any other information should be taken into consideration beyond what has been mentioned in the article? )The article exhibits ethanol fuels, including E85, as a promising alternative fuel according to its obvious benefits onenvironmental issues. It is advantageous over the conventional fuels in terms of both life cycle emissions and evaporativeand tailpipe emissions.However, there are more factors should be considered for feasibility. First of all, with lower energy content, E85 maycause the driver more troubles for refueling (Royal Automobile Association of South Australia, 2015), which makes itinconvenient to apply. Secondly, with the consideration of larger unit consumption of fuels, the price of E85 should below enough to appeal more consumers, which limits its promotion. Last but not the least, the production of ethanol fuelsmay cause some side effects. As a leader in the frontier of biofuel exploration, the United States has been called on tosuspend its production of biofuel ethanol by the United Nations Food agency for several side effects it brought (North,2012), which should be an example to be learnt from more seriously.

                          Reference

                          AFDC. (2014) “E85: An Alternative Fuel”, [Online] Available 
                          Coordinating Research Council. (2006) “Fuel Permeation from Automotive Systems: E0, E6, E10, E20 and E85”, 3650
                          Mansell Road · Suite 140·Alpharetta, GA 30022
                          North, M. M. (2012) “US biofuel production should be suspended, UN says”
                          Royal Automobile Association of South Australia. (2015) “E85 Fuel”
                          Wang, M. , Wu, M. & Huo, H. (2007) “Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types”, Environmental Research Letters 2 (2007) 024001 (13pp)


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