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                          美國summary范文:The Summary of “Double exposure: assessing the i

                          時間:2019-02-12 11:03來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
                          導論:該文是一篇美國summary范文,討論了假設經濟全球化與氣候變化之間存在協同作用。 OBrien(2000)說,自工業革命以來,大氣中溫室氣體的濃度翻了一番。在過去的一個世紀里,全球平均地
                          導論:該文是一篇美國summary范文,討論了假設經濟全球化與氣候變化之間存在協同作用。 O'Brien(2000)說,自工業革命以來,大氣中溫室氣體的濃度翻了一番。在過去的一個世紀里,全球平均地表溫度上升了0.3-0.6℃,海平面從10厘米上升到25厘米。作者認為,這種變化是由于人為地持續構成了大氣層和其他人類活動。作者還提到了雙重曝光的概念。正如奧布萊恩(O'Brien,2000)所說,雙重暴露是某些特定地區,部門或生態系統面臨氣候變化和經濟全球化影響的情況。
                          作者的主要結論包括以下四個方面:第一,他認為氣候變化與經濟全球化之間不僅存在因果關系,關系應該是協同作用。作者使用以下實例來解釋協同作用:全球變暖的變化將導致不同地區降水和干燥氣候條件的變化,從而導致世界各國經濟結構的變化;自工業革命以來,隨著世界人口的快速增長,用水量迅速增加;更重要的是,水污染也變得非常嚴重。大氣中的人為排放的溫室氣體,如一氧化碳,二氧化碳不斷增加,這將改變地球的大氣成分。其次,他報告說,氣候變化和經濟全球化的協同作用具有復雜的影響。它們產生的影響可能相互抵消,或相互疊加,導致環境和經濟方面出現雙重贏家和輸家。第三,在判斷是否存在贏家或輸家時,他認為不應僅從某個方面進行評估,而應從經濟,社會和環境方面進行評估和分析。最后,作者得出結論認為,隨著經濟全球化和氣候變化同時出現,政策可能能夠解決某一方面的負面影響,但可能會帶來另一方面的負面影響。因此,我們應該從整體和長遠的角度來制定政策以取得更好的結果。盡管作者未能明確提出全球氣候變化的具體解決方案,但作者還是提出了另一個新思路:環境問題對每個國家來說都不是一個問題。解決這個問題涉及一個國家的政治和經濟方面。面對日益嚴重的環境問題,每個國家應平衡經濟,社會和環境方面的關系。
                          The article postulates a synergism between economic globalization and climate change. O’Brien (2000) says,since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been doubled. In the past century, the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.3 - 0.6 ℃, and the sea level has risen from 10 cm to 25 cm. The author believes that this change is due to artificially sustained composition of the atmosphere and other human activities. The author also mentions a concept of double exposure. As O’Brien (2000) says, double exposure as the cases in which some particular regions, departments, or ecosystems is confronted by the influences of climate change and economic globalization. 
                          The author’s main conclusions include the following four aspects: first, he considers that there is not only a causal relationship between climate change and economic globalization, the relationship should be synergism. The author uses the following examples to explain the synergism: changes in the global warming will cause the changes in precipitation and dry climate conditions in different areas, which leads to changes in the economic structure of countries all over the world; since the Industrial Revolution, with the rapid growth of the world population, water consumption has increased quickly; what is more, water pollution also has become very serious. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased continuously, which will change the earth's atmospheric composition. Second, he reports that the synergism of climate change and economic globalization has complex impacts. The impacts they produce may cancel each other, or be superimposed on each other, resulting in the appearance of double winners and losers in both environmental and economic aspects. Third, in judging whether there are winners or losers, he thinks that it should not evaluate only from a certain aspect, but from economic, social and environmental aspects to evaluate and analyze. Finally, the author concludes that as economic globalization and climate change appear simultaneously, a policy may be able to address the negative impact of a certain aspect, but it may bring negative effects of another aspect. Thus we should be from an overall and long-term perspective to make policies to achieve better results. Although the author fails to explicitly put forward a concrete solution on global climate change, the author shows another novel idea: the environmental issue is not a single problem for every country. To solve the problem involves both political and economic aspects of a country. Facing the increasingly serious environmental problems, each country should balance the relationship among economic, social and environmental aspects.
                           
                          References
                          O’Brien K. (2000). Double exposure: Assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization. Retrieved from Google Scholar Database.
                           


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