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                          代寫英國coursework范文一篇(社會學專業)

                          時間:2018-09-21 17:09來源:未知 作者:quanlei_cai 點擊:
                          導讀:這是一篇英國Coursework范文,論文討論了英國的勞動關系。在過去幾十年里,英國的勞動關系經歷了從自主、對抗到合作的曲折歷程。自愿主義是英國的勞動關系體系的一大特色,即國家不干預私營企業的集體談判,政府留給勞資雙方達成協議的自由。政府對雇員罷工或者雇主閉廠的權利會實行一些限制,但是限制非常少。集體談判的勞資雙方幾乎都不把談判視為具有強制性的法律合同,而僅將其視為名義上的約束。 Coursework題目:Labour relations in the UK In the past decades, the UK labor relations have experienced a zigzag course from autonomy, confrontation to cooperation. In the 1950s, mos
                          導讀:這是一篇英國Coursework范文,論文討論了英國的勞動關系。在過去幾十年里,英國的勞動關系經歷了從自主、對抗到合作的曲折歷程。自愿主義是英國的勞動關系體系的一大特色,即國家不干預私營企業的集體談判,政府留給勞資雙方達成協議的自由。政府對雇員罷工或者雇主閉廠的權利會實行一些限制,但是限制非常少。集體談判的勞資雙方幾乎都不把談判視為具有強制性的法律合同,而僅將其視為名義上的約束。
                           
                          Coursework題目:Labour relations in the UK
                           
                          In the past decades, the UK labor relations have experienced a zigzag course from autonomy, confrontation to cooperation. In the 1950s, most labor disputes in Britain were settled through voluntary consultation. At that time, the economy was mainly labor-intensive with sufficient employment and the scale and scope of labor disputes were relatively small. In the 1970s, when the labor party was in power, the strength of the labor union was growing. With the deterioration of the economy and employment situation, the labor and labor parties began to face each other gradually, and strikes and collective bargaining kept happening. Under the thatcher conservatives in the 1980s, union power was greatly weakened, and strikes and mass collective bargaining were greatly reduced. After the labor party came into power in the 1990s, it emphasized the win-win of labor relations, and the labor and capital began to develop toward the direction of cooperation.
                           
                          在過去的幾十年里,英國的勞資關系經歷了從自治、對抗到合作的曲折過程。在20世紀50年代,英國的大多數勞資糾紛都是通過自愿協商解決的。當時,經濟主要是勞動密集型,就業充足,勞動爭議的規模和范圍相對較小。在20世紀70年代,當工黨執政時,工會的力量在增長。隨著經濟和就業形勢的惡化,勞資雙方開始逐步面對面,罷工和集體談判不斷發生。在20世紀80年代的保守派統治下,工會權力大大減弱,罷工和群眾集體談判大大減少。勞動黨在20世紀90年代上臺后,強調勞動關系的雙贏,勞動和資本開始朝著合作的方向發展。
                           
                          Compared with the changes of labor relations, the adjustment of labor relations in Britain has maintained the traditional characteristics of voluntarism. "Voluntarism is a feature of the UK Labour relations system, where the state does not interfere in collective bargaining by private companies and the government leaves both parties free to reach an agreement. The government imposes some restrictions on the right of employees to strike or employers to close factories, but very few. The collective bargaining parties hardly regard the negotiation as having a mandatory legal contract, but only as a nominal constraint ". Influenced by the tradition of voluntarism, British labor relations are obviously lack of normative legal system support, and it is very sensitive to external changes. Because of the close relationship between trade unions and politics, the different attitudes of the ruling party towards trade unions directly affect the change of labor relations. The innovation of electronic information technology has triggered a new wave of global new economy, with the change of traditional labor employment and the prevalence of outsourcing business and non-fixed work place, which has brought new difficulties and problems to the traditional workplace-based labor relations management. Britain's Labour market has also changed dramatically, with women entering the Labour force in large Numbers and men increasingly joining the ranks of part-time workers as a result of the decline of traditional manufacturing and the development of emerging industries. Women and part-time workers are mostly non-union members, which undoubtedly weakens the role of collective bargaining in UK Labour relations. As a member of the European Union, the UK's labor relations, from individual rights to collective rights of employees, are affected by eu policies to varying degrees, and the government's role in labor relations adjustment tends to be strengthened. Over the past decade, the UK has enacted and revised many new laws on employment, and the eu's advocacy of collective bargaining has put a lot of pressure on shrinking collective bargaining in the UK.
                           
                          The origins of British trade unions date back to the late 17th century, when, with the development of industry, medieval guilds began to decline, and workers began to organize themselves and employers to set reasonable wages for the industry. The original labor organization, known as chapel, began as a club-like social organization and grew into a trade union organization against employers. During the war between Britain and France, trade unions joined forces with political activism to form a powerful force. In 1800, the government introduced the association law to restrict the development of illegal workers' organizations. Until the act of association was abolished in 1824, association
                           
                          To become a legal right of workers. By the middle and late 19th century British trade unions began to develop on a large scale. In 1868, Britain's first national union of trade unions, the union federation, was proclaimed. After the second world war, British trade unions showed three stages of development.
                           
                          After world war ii, the British government was committed to the construction of the welfare state, and the Keynesian demand management idea was accepted by the government, and maintaining the highest level of employment became one of the economic policies of the government. Parliament has passed a number of bills to give workers employment, wage negotiations and other rights to various systems and legalization. In 1965 the Labour government passed the trade union disputes act, which gave trade union leaders sufficient legal cover to enable them to take action when employment contracts were threatened with tear up. The labor government carried out massive nationalization measures, and the implementation of the all-member membership system greatly promoted the growth of the number of union members and strengthened the power of the union. In 1951, British union membership reached 9.289 million; By 1978, membership had reached nearly 12 million. At this stage, under the influence of a series of favorable policies, the power and influence of the trade union increased greatly, and the trade union carried out a wide range of strikes to increase wages and various work benefits. In contrast to the rising power of workers, the decline in Labour productivity in the UK, now known as the "sick man of Europe". By the mid-1960s, labor unions had become the dominant force in British political life, and labor relations became the focus of national attention. The union reshuffled the country's political forces and became an important pole in the "three partnerships". No matter which party is in power, it should negotiate with the trade union on the relevant policies. In a sense, the smooth implementation of the policies of various governments and even the success of the ruling party in the general election depend on the support and cooperation of the trade unions. The Labour relations act, enacted by the conservative government in 1971 to regulate collective bargaining, union representation and strike action in the American way, was fiercely opposed by unions, and the conservatives lost the general election because of their crackdown on the miners' strike in 1974. The union's strength was sustained by the subsequent abolition of the bill by the ruling Labour party.
                           
                          A series of strikes in Britain's public sector, called the "winter of discontent", intensified popular suspicion of union rights, and attacks on union privileges became one of the keys to the conservatives' victory in 1979. After the conservative Mrs. Thatcher came to power in 1979, she pushed hard for non-nationalization, making privatization the core of her economic policy. The thatcher government believed that the strength of trade unions was an obstacle to the improvement of economic efficiency of enterprises. Therefore, it abandoned the previous policy of negotiation, negotiation and compromise adopted by the government on trade unions, and the government and trade unions were no longer equal "partnership". The government adopted a tough policy to weaken the power of trade unions, and abolished the all-member membership system. The employment law and the trade union law were passed successively to abolish the universal legal immunity enjoyed by trade unions, suppress workers' strike, limit the ability of labor union leaders to act, and narrow the scope of the legality of labor conflict. The collapse of the miners' strike in the mid-1980s left the unions discredited, and they barely made it into government after the public sector was privatised. By the late 1980s British trade unions were no longer as influential in national political life as they once were.
                           
                          At this stage, the development of British trade unions is at a low and difficult stage. Union membership declined sharply, from nearly 12 million in 1979 to 7,117,000 in 1997. Recognition of unions plummeted, falling to 64 percent in 1980 and 42 percent in 1998, according to a series of surveys on workplace employee relations. Private-sector recognition of unions has fallen particularly sharply, from half in 1980 to just 25% in 1998. At the same time that union recognition has fallen, some employers have begun to withdraw their recognition, in an attempt to push the union out of the management of Labour relations. Management one revokes recognition of a trade union on the grounds that its membership has declined or that its activities have ceased to exist; The second is to adopt a gradual strategy to make the weak trade unions gradually decline in the organization, and at the same time adjust the strong trade unions, especially the important strategic position in the organization production process, so as to finally abolish the trade unions. The approach includes restructuring layoffs, introducing incentives to encourage employees to sign individual contracts, and reducing employees' need for collective bargaining.


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