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                          英格蘭coursework代寫:4P營銷理論與關系營銷理論探討

                          時間:2019-03-01 11:26來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
                          導讀:英國coursework代寫范文推薦-本文講述的是4P營銷理論是以產品為中心的營銷理論,關系營銷理論是以消費者為中心的營銷理論,在市場條件下的剩余經濟條件下,關系營銷理論明顯比4P營銷

                          導讀:英國coursework代寫范文推薦-本文講述的是4P營銷理論是以產品為中心的營銷理論,關系營銷理論是以消費者為中心的營銷理論,在市場條件下的剩余經濟條件下,關系營銷理論明顯比4P營銷理論更有利于企業提高顧客忠誠度。

                          1.0 Introduction 引言
                          營銷策略作為一種重要的戰略,旨在提高企業利用營銷資源的效率,最大限度地提高企業資源的利用效率。市場營銷在企業管理中具有突出的戰略地位,與產品戰略相結合,被稱為企業的基本管理戰略,對保證企業整體戰略的實施和成功發揮著關鍵作用。目前,營銷策略主要有兩種類型,一種是以產品為中心的營銷策略,如4P的營銷理論(McCarthy,1960),另一種是以消費者為中心的關系營銷策略(Tapp,2005)。在當前的市場條件下,什么樣的營銷策略更合適是當代企業管理者需要考慮的重要問題之一。本文首先回顧了4P營銷理論和關系營銷理論的相關文獻。然后以瑪莎百貨公司為研究對象,對其營銷策略的成功進行了實證研究。最后,對現代企業如何應對營銷管理提出了建議。
                          Marketing strategy as an important strategy which aims at improving the efficiency of an enterprise’s making use of marketing resources to maximize the efficiency of using corporate resources. Marketing takes an outstanding strategic position in enterprise management, which makes it together along with product strategy and be known as the basic management strategy of an enterprise, it plays a key role in ensuring the implementation and success of the overall enterprise strategy. Currently there are mainly two types of marketing strategy, one is product-centric marketing strategy, such as the marketing theory of 4P (McCarthy, 1960), the other is consumer-centric relationship marketing strategy (Tapp, 2005). In current market conditions, what type of marketing strategy is more appropriate is one of important issues that contemporary enterprise managers need to consider. This essay first of all reviews literatures on the marketing theory of 4P and relationship marketing theory. Then it takes Marks&Spencer as the object of a case study to investigate the success of its marketing strategy. Finally, it brings forward recommendations on how modern enterprises deal with marketing management.
                          2.0 Literature review文獻綜述
                          2.1 The marketing theory of 4P4P營銷理論
                          4P營銷理論誕生于20世紀中葉,在這一時期,世界主要資本主義國家的經濟逐漸從第二次世界大戰的沖擊中復蘇,進入了長達20年快速發展的“黃金時期”,消費者對各種商品的需求量急劇增加。在此期間,消費者需求強勁單一,形成了典型賣方市場的競爭環境。
                          The marketing theory of 4P was born in the mid-20th century, during this period, economy of the major capitalist countries in the world has gradually recovered from the strike of World War II and entered a "golden period" of up to 20 years of rapid development, there was a sharp increase in consumers’ demand for various commodities. During this period, consumer demand was strong and single, forming the competitive environment of a typical seller's market. In this market environment, enterprises mainly considered how to introduce their products to market at the least cost (Huang, 2015; Abdullah, Putit and Teo, 2014). Aiming at the characteristics of the special market conditions at that time and the practical needs of enterprises to reduce costs and improve marketing performance, Jerome McCarthy proposed the famous marketing theory of 4P, namely, product, price, place and promotion. Jerome McCarthy believes that in marketing process, companies should focus on these four aspects (McCarthy, 1960). Firstly, products produced should have a unique selling point. Secondly, enterprises should depend on product market positioning to develop targeted pricing strategies. Thirdly, they should pay attention to cultivating and improving sales network to establish a link between businesses and consumers. Finally, companies should make use of discounting, providing free gift and other promotional acts to stimulate consumers’ purchase to achieve sales growth (McCarthy, 1960). The marketing theory of 4P proposed is a very valuable decision-making idea for enterprises on how to develop marketing strategies in the market conditions of a shortage, so that under complicated market conditions, decision makers of enterprises can quickly and efficiently find the decisive factors affecting their marketing efficiency to develop targeted marketing mix strategy, so even to this day, although the market environment has changed dramatically, companies can not completely ignore the value of the marketing theory of 4P. However, as the market environment has transformed from a shortage economy to a surplus economy, limitations of the marketing theory of 4P have been more and more revealed, the importance of the theory has gradually been replaced by other marketing theories.
                          2.2 Relationship marketing theory
                          Entering the late 1990s, since the efficiency of social material production has been greatly improved, social wealth and products were greatly enriched, consumers were faced with more diverse choice, enterprises faced unprecedented fierce competition. Customer demand became more diverse and personalized, in order to continue to meet the individual needs of consumers, enterprises on the one hand constantly adjusted product structure, improved processes, updated equipment, so that enterprises’ products production and marketing costs rose constantly, profit margins have been drastically reduced. On the other hand, the market competition was fierce, consumers faced many choices, consumer loyalty for products declined (Huang, 2015; Abdullah, Putit and Teo, 2014). In this context, to resolve conflicts between individualized demand of consumers and costs of enterprises to maintain, continuously improve customer loyalty, people began to realize the importance of constructing the relationship between consumers and enterprises to expect to meet consumer demand, while maximizing corporate interests. To this end, Tapp (2005) proposed relationship marketing theory, in relationship marketing theory, he defines marketing activities as the interaction process occurring between an enterprise and consumers, suppliers, distributors, competitors, government agencies and other public, the core is to establish and develop good relations with these public. Traditional marketing is concerned about how to achieve trading and attract new customers; relationship marketing focuses on how to maintain friendly relations with our customers to get loyal customers. Marketing target of traditional marketing is only customers, marketing objects of relationship marketing include customers, suppliers, employees, distributors and other multiple markets related to corporate interests (Bilgihan and Bujisic, 2015; Arslanagic-Kalajdzic and Zabkar, 2015).
                          2.3 Critical analysis
                          The marketing theory of 4P is product-centric marketing theory, and relationship marketing theory is consumer-centric marketing theory, in the market conditions of surplus economy, relationship marketing theory is clearly more helpful to help enterprises to improve customer loyalty than the marketing theory of 4P, however, it is worth noting that relationship marketing theory faces some difficulties in the specific implementation. For example, relationship marketing emphasizes that enterprises should maintain a good relationship with a wide range of aspects such as consumers, employees, suppliers, government, etc., but in reality, there will be a conflict between all parties about interests, how to simultaneously coordinate the conflict of interests of all parties to maintain good relations with all parties is a considerable challenge for enterprises (Huang, 2015). There is another example: the establishment of a relationship depends on the willingness of both sides, with changes in market environment, what consumers, employees, suppliers demand will change, their willingness of establishing relationship with enterprises will change accordingly, thus how to build long-term stable relationship with them is a challenge for corporate management (Abdullah, Putit and Teo, 2014). 
                          3.0 Case study
                          Marks & Spencer is the UK's largest and most profitable transnational retail group, its customers are mainly people of working class, its purpose is determined as “providing target customers with high-quality goods that they can afford”. Thus Marks & Spencer set up their own design team, in close coordination with suppliers, together with them to design or re-design a variety of products, in order to ensure to provide customers with high quality goods (Whitelegge, 2008).
                          Marks & Spencer is based on the price that their consumers can accept to determine the production costs. To this end, it put a lot of money into technology design and development of goods, through economies of scale to reduce production costs, while continuing to pursue administrative reform to improve administrative efficiency in order to reduce operating costs of the entire enterprise (Whitelegge, 2008).
                          In terms of the relationship with suppliers, Marks & Spencer provides them help as much as possible to help them to improve product quality, when the quality of goods is improved and sales increases, Marks & Spencer and its suppliers can share economic benefits with the suppliers, which makes their partnership further close. It has been more than 100 years when Marks & Spencer first established partnership with its first suppliers, there are more than 60 supplies who have partnership with Marks & Spencer for over 50 years, and there are more than 100 suppliers with more than 30 years of partnership with Marks & Spencer (Colgate and Alexander, 1998). 


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